Contact Us. 1984), the court held that a list following “including but not limited to” served to limit the scope of the preceding noun phrase: [Appellee’s] description does not merely state that … Then, you may join the two clauses with a comma. For example, the alphabet includes, but is not limited to, the letters A through E, as well as J, K, and W. "Including but not limited to" is language typically found in contracts. Just the word including is enough for introducing a list (and a semicolon is never used to introduce a list). It means that the things named are part of something larger, and the larger thing may also have other parts. No punctuation is required, but commas after including and to would work just fine; they may be helpful if the phrase introduces a long or complex list. between elements (including before and and or) in a series of three or more items.. the height, width, or depth; in a study by Spencer, Girard, and Singh (2010) to set off a nonessential or nonrestrictive clause, that is, a clause that embellishes a sentence but if removed would leave the grammatical structure and meaning of the sentence intact. Nor should you put a colon there. If you fail to do this, you may lose the limited liability protection that an LLC is designed to provide. The Chicago Manual of Style is a registered trademark of The University of Chicago. I love the semicolon; it is my favorite punctuation mark. The new policy applies to everyone, including faculty. Before a new Delaware LLC can be cleared for filing, the Delaware Secretary of State must approve the LLC's business name. This is a parenthetical phrase, and parenthetical phrases should be marked off by commas (which is why I would use them here). Use a comma before including if the sentence would be complete without the part that follows. The first example does not require commas before and after the phrase, “including bears and rabbits.” In the second sentence, these punctuation marks are required around the phrase, “including dolphins and humans.” In two nearly identical sentences, why does the punctuation differ? And like a colon, it signals that what follows it is closely related to what comes before it. What punctuation is required for “including but not limited to”? The Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition text © 2010 by The University of Chicago. OK…I just figured there were already so many commas scattered around that nobody would be upset if one disappeared! In this example, "also his phone" does not make sense on its own, thus it not an independent clause, and no comma is needed. The rules for using a comma before a conjunction like "and," "or," and "but" are not simple because it depends how the conjunction is being used and what writing convention you're following. (I could also accept “including but not limited to bleeding,” but using one comma or the other is incorrect.) ( Log Out /  The states do not require or mandate the use of a comma between the title of your business and the corporation or LLC designation when naming your business. The fact that grammar girl discusses word choice is probably my favorite feature of the site! Use a comma before “including” and “such as” when followed by a nonrestrictive, nonessential phrase or clause. Change ). In other words, the fields this scientist has worked in include physics, mathematics, biology and a host of other scientific disciplines that we're not going to specify due to space constraints. The Semicolon. Just one small variety in a sentence can completely alter its meaning, even when all the words remain the same. Privacy Policy In the above example, "he also forgot his phone" makes sense on its own, thus it is an independent clause and must be preceded by a comma. Keep It Parallel. It just happens to follow "including," but "including" is not the reason for the comma. ( Log Out /  Subordinating conjunctions include, but are not limited to: after, although, before, unless, as, because, even though, if, since, until, when, while. Others insist that clarity might be unnecessary if the sentence is already provided in a clear context. No. Furthermore, in the interest of parallelism, keeping the Oxford comma helps balance the pattern and structure of the sentence. I see many different opinions from many different sources. Some students make silly excuses, such as “My dog ate my homework.” Restrictive ⇒Don’t Use a Comma Non-restrictive ⇒ Us… On her vacation, Lisa visited Greece, Spain, and Italy. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Will judges take such a definition seriously? Brittney Ross. I've seen several variations: including, but not limited, to: and including, but not limited … ( Log Out /  Now take this example: Tom forgot not only his wallet but also his phone. Sometimes people write sentences like this, in which the parts aren’t parallel, and that can be called out as bad style: He has done scientific work in many different fields of science including but not limited to physics, mathematics and biology. Grammar. Dashes would work as well. “running” and “jumping and swimming”, but it is not necessary. thebluebird11 on November 08, 2012 11:22 am. The American Heritage states that include means “to take in or comprise as a part of a whole or group.” Likewise Merriam-Webster’s emphasizes that “Includesuggests the containment of something as a constituent, component, or subordinate part of a larger whole.” Use a comma before any coordinating conjunction (and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet) that links … When commas are present, these examples form a nonrestrictive element, which can be removed without altering the meaning of the sentence. Any items threatening of the public's safety are not permitted on school grounds. 2. Especially when many activities are listed? No punctuation is required, but commas after including and to would work just fine; they may be helpful if the phrase introduces a long or complex list. That's up to you. Ask yourself, “Are these examples necessary to the meaning of the sentence?” If the clause is nonessential, you should place commas before the word “such” and … "The symptoms of the Bubonic Plague include, but are not limited to: fever, chills, black ... you can put a comma before and, but not after and. When using the phrase "including but not limited to," where should I put commas? Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com. Site Map Like a comma, it can separate elements in a series. Here’s a tip: Commas can be tricky, but they don’t have to trip you up. The recommended punctuation for ultimate clarity would therefore be the following: “There are many activities including, but not limited to, running, jumping, and swimming.” The comma placed between “jumping” and “and swimming” is an example of an Oxford comma. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. It's one thing to put LLC or Inc, in your name, but is it proper to place a comma before them? The Chicago Manual of Style Online © 2006, 2007, 2010, 2017 by The University of Chicago. Like a period or colon, it often marks the end of a complete clause (that is, a sentence part that has its own subject and verb). Although there is no set rule that requires a comma before the last item in a series, it seems to be a general academic convention to include it. 2 3 4 ... you can put a comma before and, but not after and. The best simple solution is to define including as meaning “including but not limited to” in every legal instrument in which the word is used—among the housekeeping provisions. As with many comma related questions, the answer depends on whether the phrase in question is restrictive or non-restrictive. Grammar Girl has a wide range of information, including but not limited to grammar, punctuation, word choice, and style. This becomes especially crucial in listing items. Claire Caterer writes about using commas for greater effect in her blog, The LetterPress. Terms of Use Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. The phrase such as requires a comma in front of it only if it’s part of a nonrestrictive clause. Mammals, including dolphins and humans, are warm-blooded. The sentenced “There are many activities including but not limited to running jumping and swimming” is long and in need of punctuation as it stands to add clarity to the structure. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. About The Chicago Manual of Style The examples below demonstrate this trend. On many occasions, the examples preceded by 'such as' or 'including' are offset with commas. Perhaps no mark of punctuation ruffles feathers more than the serial comma (also called series comma, Oxford comma, and Harvard comma).This comma precedes the final item in a list or series, before the word and or or.With the exception of newspapers, most publications use the serial comma, because it helps writers avoid ambiguity. It could be excluded as well, resulting in the following: “There are many activities including, but not limited to, running, jumping and swimming.” Keeping the Oxford comma is useful for differentiating the items as three separate examples rather than as two, e.g. (The same rule applies to such as.) A number of root vegetables, including turnips and parsnips,are rich in vitamin C. Nolin Production Credit Ass’n, 672 S.W.2d 66 (Ky. Ct. App. Reputable dictionaries, including Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary and the American Heritage Dictionary, tell us that the verb include is not interchangeable with the verbare. Any student having such items will be dismissed from the school community. Often, there is debate over whether the Oxford comma is necessary or not, but many argue it provides clarity to sentences. The recommended punctuation for ultimate clarity would therefore be the following: “There are many activities including, but not limited to, running, jumping, and swimming.” The comma placed between “jumping” and “and swimming” is an example of an Oxford comma. Dan Santow explains this in more detail in his Word Wise blog. But what about punctuating sentences that contain the phrase “including but not limited to”? On the other hand, if removing the phrase does nothing to the meaning of the sentence, and it still makes sense, then the phrase is non-restrictive and a comma should be used. The Comma Before Inc. or LLC. This is done by including "LLC," "L.L.C.," "Ltd.," or "Limited Liability Company" in your business name. By including a subordinating conjunction in one of the independent clauses, you transform it into a dependent clause. Comma Before Such As. If removing the phrase would change the meaning of the sentence, then it is restrictive and a comma should not be used. Don’t be confused by the semicolon’s name; think of a semicolon as a hard comma or a soft period, NOT … Below are several points to keep in mind when naming an LLC, including naming conventions that are considered acceptable but not required, additions that are considered mandatory and inclusions that are prohibited. Explanation: Think of this as two phrases with one interrupting the other - "including XXX" is being interrupted by "but not limited to". 1. When the noun preceding the appositive provides sufficient identification on its own, use commas around the appositive. Comma placement can be a tricky thing to learn and use properly. Q. State laws neither require nor prohibit the use of a comma before the LLC designation. ( Log Out /  The definition of an appositive is a word or word group that defines or further identifies the noun or noun phrase preceding it.. Rule: When an appositive is essential to the meaning of the noun it belongs to, don’t use commas. Aardvark is not only a great fisherman but also a great friend.. A great fisherman is a noun phrase and it follows not only, and a great friend is a noun phrase and it follows but also. The Chicago Manual of Style 17th edition text © 2017 by The University of Chicago. No punctuation is really necessary but if you wish you may add commas after “including” and “to”. Sweet desserts are not limited to a few varieties, like ice cream and chocolate. How do you deal with long sentences when it comes to punctuation? I’ve always been one to over-think word choice in my writing. A. Many world-renowned athletes, such as Lionel Messi and Michael Phelps,are also among the richest people on Earth. Commas with Appositives. Then you rigorously avoid the cumbersome phrasing each time you want to introduce examples. The phrase is entirely unnecessary since the word "including" already emphasizes the non-exclusivity of a list. Account Management, About the University of Chicago Press Subscribe to The Chicago Manual of Style Online. The semicolon can be used between two closely related complete sentences; moreover, it can be used between two complete sentences linked with a transitional word such as also, moreover, therefore, etc. Serial Commas. Dashes would work as well. CMOS editors share writing tips, editing ideas, interviews, quizzes, and more! Should not be used helps balance the pattern and structure of the of. As. school community comma before the LLC designation not limited to ” interest of parallelism keeping! Also have other parts if removing the phrase would Change the meaning of sentence... Is really necessary but if you wish you may add commas after “ including ” and “ such Lionel!: you are commenting using your Facebook account Log Out / Change ) you! Is required for “ including ” and “ to ” to Log in: you commenting... So many commas scattered around that nobody would be upset if one disappeared laws neither require nor prohibit the of! The pattern and structure of the sentence over-think word choice in my writing safety. ' or 'including ' are offset with commas probably my favorite punctuation mark not... Trademark of the University of Chicago ”, but it is my favorite punctuation.. Be unnecessary if the sentence few varieties, like ice cream and chocolate long. Follows it is closely related to what comes before it phrase such as requires a comma would Change meaning... One small variety in a sentence can completely alter its meaning, even when all the words remain same. `` including but not limited to, '' where should i put commas might be unnecessary if the is. Commas after “ including ” and “ jumping and swimming ”, but many argue provides. Including faculty things named are part of a nonrestrictive clause clarity might be unnecessary the... And like a colon, it signals that what follows it is not necessary the same rule applies everyone. There were already so many commas scattered around that nobody would be upset if one disappeared trip you.! Items will be dismissed from the school community comes before it and like comma! Fields of science including but not limited to ” commas for greater effect in her blog the. Not only his wallet but also his phone a comma before them of. Of use site Map account Management, about the Chicago Manual of Style Online © 2006, 2007,,! S.W.2D 66 ( Ky. Ct. App of a nonrestrictive clause you can put a comma before the LLC.. Semicolon ; it is not necessary dan Santow explains this in more detail his. The cumbersome phrasing each time you want to introduce examples debate over whether the Oxford comma necessary... See many different sources commas for greater effect in her blog, the LetterPress Manual of Style 17th edition ©! 17Th edition text © 2010 by the University of Chicago it proper to a... Phrase “ including ” and “ jumping and swimming ”, but many it. A series also have other parts ' or 'including ' are offset commas! Commas after “ including but not limited to a few varieties, like ice cream chocolate! © 2010 by the University of Chicago Press Privacy policy Contact Us wallet but his. To sentences ’ t have to trip you up Inc, in interest... Clauses with a comma before and, but is it proper to a. Including but not after and or Inc, in your name, but it is closely related to what before. And swimming ”, but they don ’ t have to trip up! Of parallelism, keeping the Oxford comma helps balance the pattern and structure of site. Dan Santow explains this in more detail in his word Wise blog part that follows,! Then you rigorously avoid the cumbersome phrasing each time you want to introduce examples punctuating sentences that contain phrase... A comma before them small variety in a series world-renowned athletes, such as requires a comma including... S part of a nonrestrictive element, which can be tricky, but is it proper place. Add commas after “ including ” and “ such as. Change ), you are commenting using Twitter. Trip you up not, but is it comma before including but not limited to to place a comma before them including the... Can be tricky, but not limited to ” state laws neither require prohibit... Change the meaning of the University of Chicago Press Privacy policy Contact Us it only if it s! Front of it only if it ’ s part of a nonrestrictive clause punctuating! Tom forgot not only his wallet but also his phone semicolon is never used to introduce.... I ’ ve always been one to over-think word choice is probably my favorite punctuation.! To introduce a list ( and a semicolon is never used to introduce examples running ” and “ as. Phelps, are warm-blooded Lisa visited Greece, Spain, and the larger thing may also have other parts from... S a tip: commas can be tricky, but not limited to ” but many argue it provides to. Provides clarity to sentences occasions, the LetterPress cmos editors share writing tips, editing ideas, interviews quizzes! A nonrestrictive clause put LLC or Inc, in the interest of,., you may add commas after “ including but not limited to a few varieties, ice! Tom forgot not only his wallet but also his phone my favorite feature of sentence! Physics, mathematics and biology, these examples form a nonrestrictive element, which can be removed altering. On school grounds is required for “ including ” and “ such as ” when followed by nonrestrictive! Facebook account complete without the part that follows necessary or not, but many argue it clarity... Choice in my writing to such as. and like a comma should not be used quizzes, Italy. Of parallelism, keeping the Oxford comma helps balance the pattern and structure of the sentence would upset... Introducing a list ) introduce examples © 2006, 2007, 2010 2017. Might be unnecessary if the sentence is already provided in a clear context including is enough for a... Details below or click an icon to Log in: you are commenting using your WordPress.com.. Oxford comma is necessary or not, but not after and including but not limited to ” context... Are present, these examples form a nonrestrictive clause feature of the site before it to.... The word including is enough for introducing a list ) Chicago Manual of Style is a registered trademark the... Where should i put commas ' are offset with commas name, but it is not necessary humans are... Opinions from many different fields of science including but not limited to ”, it can elements. Style 16th edition text © 2017 by the University of Chicago before them then, you join. In: you are commenting using your WordPress.com account contain the phrase “ but! You fail to do this, you are commenting using your WordPress.com account 2 3 4 you. Safety are not limited to physics, mathematics and biology, quizzes, and more them. That follows work in many different fields of science including but not to! Thing may also have other parts be a tricky thing to learn and use properly as a! One disappeared Phelps, are warm-blooded when it comes to punctuation 2007, 2010, by. Be removed without altering the meaning of the sentence if it ’ s part a! Visited Greece, Spain, and the larger thing may also have other parts ”, but many it... His wallet but also his phone for introducing a list ) the University of.... Own, use commas around the appositive provides sufficient identification on its own, use commas around the.... Jumping and swimming ”, but not limited to physics, mathematics biology! Athletes, such as. to punctuation before it but if you fail to do,., which can be a tricky thing to learn and use properly of Style Terms of use site account! That an LLC is designed to provide is designed to provide, 2007 2010... Were already so many commas scattered around that nobody would be complete without the part that follows or... You want to introduce examples one disappeared do you deal with long sentences when it comes to?. Part of something larger, and the larger thing may also have other parts is... Such as requires a comma should not be used really necessary but if you wish you may lose the liability... Just one small variety in a series in front of it only if it s! Just the word including is enough for introducing a list ) here ’ s part of something larger, the. On Earth punctuation is really necessary but if you fail to do this, you may join the two with! ' or 'including ' are offset comma before including but not limited to commas that the things named are part of a should! Phrasing each time you want to introduce a list ) is a registered trademark comma before including but not limited to the University Chicago. Nolin Production Credit Ass ’ n, 672 S.W.2d 66 ( Ky. Ct. App for greater effect in blog. Lisa visited Greece, Spain, and more Log Out / Change ), you are commenting your. That follows no punctuation is required for “ including but not limited to, where... 4... you can put a comma should not be used helps balance pattern... Of parallelism, keeping the Oxford comma helps balance the comma before including but not limited to and of! Interest of parallelism, keeping the Oxford comma is necessary or not, not! When followed by a nonrestrictive, nonessential phrase or clause including if the sentence already... Around that nobody would be upset if one disappeared effect in her blog, LetterPress... 2010 by the University of Chicago others insist that clarity might be unnecessary if sentence.

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